You’ re totally hooked on long-distance running and just signed up for your 10th marathon, or perhaps swimming and/or cycling is your preference, or perhaps you’re into all three!
No matter what sport you practice, endurance sports have their own challenges in terms of nutrition and supplements.
You need to focus on dialing these in to help support the sheer volume of your persistently intense training. You simply can’ t run 26 miles on potato chips and Twinkies (or maybe you can, but it won’t last long).
An alternative and viable solution, which some endurance athletes opt for, is to aid their whole foods nutritional intake with dietary supplements. The following is a quick visual of some of these supplements we are about to go over in more detail, which can help your stamina.
Supplements That Help Endurance
Now let’ s break each endurance-boosting supplement down individually by providing relevant studies and research on the role each one plays. Ready to learn?
The secret to being successful at long-distance endurance events is the ability to keep going, even when you just want to quit. Beetroot powder, basically powdered beets, can give you the push you need to finish those last few miles.
How Beetroot Helps Endurance
A 2013 study in the Journal of Applied Physiology evaluated the impact of beetroot on exercise. Ten subjects were given beetroot or a placebo two hours before a bout of high-intensity exercise. Those who received the beetroot showed a significantly improved physiological response to the exercise.
This meant that their bodies responded more effectively, allowing for better performance, and the exercise felt easier after taking the powder. These subjects were also able to exercise 14% longer than the placebo group. The reason is that beets increase nitric oxide in the body, which helps the body use oxygen more efficiently.
Not only are beets awesome during your workout, but they can also promote faster recovery. A 2016 study gave 30 active men varying doses of beet juice or a placebo for 48 hours after completing a high intensity jumping exercise.
Researchers measured inflammation levels and muscle recovery for 72 hours after the workout.
Those who received the beet juice were found to have less inflammation, faster muscle recovery, and reported less muscle soreness compared to the placebo group. Beets are a really good friend when it comes to increasing performance and speeding up recovery.
How to Take Beetroot
Beetroot usually comes in a powdered form and it can be easily added into your pre- or post-workout shake. There isn’t a specific recommended dosage for it.
For an added benefit, you can add beets into your diet. They taste amazing roasted or in a salad. You can also find freeze-dried beets, which are a bit sweet and similar to potato chips in texture and use them as a pre-workout snack.
Be careful eating beets can cause your pee to turn bright red, which can be scary if you don’t remember you ate them.
Protein supplements, more specifically protein powders, are not just for bodybuilders, they are also incredibly important for endurance athletes too.
After about two hours of exercise, the body runs out of carbohydrates to use and starts to use protein to help meet its energy needs and help you keep going.
If you are not fueling properly, then this can lead to muscle loss, which will make it very challenging to keep participating in any exercise. When the muscles start to be used up for energy, this can also cause ammonia build-up and lead to extreme fatigue.
How Protein Helps Endurance
Getting enough protein can help counteract some of the wastings of muscle that might occur with intense endurance exercise.
Whey protein, one of the two proteins found in milk, outperforms every other type of protein for muscle building and recovery. Whey is ideal because it contains all nine essential amino acids and is easily absorbed.
As I mentioned, endurance exercise stimulates protein breakdown, which increases overall protein needs for athletes. The muscles tend to primarily burn branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs) when they are in need of increased fuel.
One way to prevent muscle breakdown is to consume enough carbohydrates during your event so that the body does not need to go to the muscles for energy. But, another way is to consume carbohydrates with protein, particularly one high in BCAAs, like whey protein, which is high in leucine.
For endurance athletes trying to increase lean body mass or slim down, whey protein can help. The addition of whey to your overall diet can promote weight loss, increase lean body mass, and encourage fat loss. Thus, whey, along with a proper diet, can help you lean out for an upcoming event.
How to Take Whey Protein
There are three main types of whey protein available:
• whey concentrate,
• whey isolate,
• and whey hydrolysate.
Concentrate is the least processed and contains more fat and carbohydrates. It also tastes the best and is the cheapest.
If you are lactose intolerant, you should avoid whey concentrate, as it can cause digestive issues. Whey isolate and hydrolysate are more processed and usually more expensive.
Whey hydrolysate is the most beneficial for building muscle as it increases insulin levels after it is consumed. It is probably not ideal for someone trying to lose weight or who has blood sugar issues.
Whey protein should be consumed either before, during, or after a workout. Aim to get 20-30 grams for a great post-workout drink.
Caffeine is one of the most extensively studied substances for exercise performance, particularly for boosting endurance. It makes exercise easier, delays fatigue, and increases overall performance. A little caffeine can also give you the boost of energy you need to start training on those days when you are just too tired.
How Caffeine Helps Endurance
A 2012 study evaluated the use of caffeine and the cycling performance of male athletes.
Participants took either a placebo, 3mg/kg, or 6 mg/kg of caffeine 90 minutes prior to a 60-minute cycling workout. Exercise performance was significantly improved in both groups that received the caffeine supplement.
There was no difference between the caffeine groups. This research indicates that there is a certain limit to how much caffeine will boost performance, so more is not better.
How to Take Caffeine
The tolerance level for caffeine can vary from person to person. Some people can drink coffee right before bed and sleep like a baby, whereas others get jittery and anxious with just a small amount.
If you want to try caffeine to improve your endurance training, you want to start slowly and be aware of your individual tolerance.
The recommended dose is 150-300 mg about 30-60 minutes before your workout as it takes about an hour for the effect to kick in.
A cup of coffee has about 100 mg, so this would be the equivalent of 2-3 cups. As you can see in the above study, more is not better with caffeine. Taking too much can increase your heart rate, make you feel jittery, and impact your performance.
Beta-alanine is an amino acid known to improve performance and delay fatigue during high-intensity exercise. It works in helping the body manage hydrogen ions that are created during exercise. When these are allowed to build up, they lower muscle pH, which leads to early fatigue.
How Beta-Alanine Helps Endurance
Beta-alanine helps boost carnosine content in the muscles, a compound needed to neutralize the ions. Supplementation with 2-6 mg of beta-alanine increases carnosine concentrations by 20-80%.
Oddly enough, a carnosine supplement alone will not increase carnosine in the muscles as it is broken down into other substances first. Only beta-alanine can increase carnosine in muscles.
A 2009 study evaluated the impact of beta-alanine on overall muscle carnosine content during a sprint cycling activity. The subjects first performed a 110-minute cycling trial followed by a 30-second sprint. Blood lactate and pH were measured during the activity.
Cyclists who had received the beta-alanine increased peak power by 11.4%. Blood lactate and pH levels were the same between the experimental and placebo group.
How to Take Beta-Alanine
Beta-alanine is most effective when taken regularly, not just before you work out. Regular supplementation is needed to keep carnosine levels up.
The recommended dose for beta-alanine is 3-6 grams per day. It can cause a tingling or numbness in the skin if that happens you may want to split up your dosage throughout the day.
Glutamine is a common non-essential amino acid, meaning your body can make it on its own. But, your body’s ability to make enough glutamine may be affected during times of physical stress, for example during periods of intense training.
How Glutamine Helps Endurance
Low levels of glutamine in the body can promote inflammation, increase the risk of illness, and muscle breakdown, the last thing an endurance athlete needs.
A survey of over 200 endurance athletes found that 81% of those who took glutamine supplements reported no illnesses during their training period, compared to 49% in those who did not take glutamine.
This means glutamine may be able to mitigate some of the impacts that intense training has on the immune system helping athletes stay healthy so they can compete at their best.
How to Take Glutamine
The recommended dose for glutamine is 10-20 grams per day post-workout to promote glutamine repletion. You want to continue to take glutamine daily for at least 5 days after a tough workout session to make sure your levels are replete.
Glutamine is also found in bone broth and gelatin, which you can add to your diet for an additional dose.
Creatine is a popular supplement in the bodybuilding community, but that doesn’t mean it can’t be used for endurance athletes as well. Creatine helps build and maintain muscle, which is beneficial for endurance athletes as well. It may also help increase energy levels during your workout.
How Creatine Helps Endurance
A 2003 study gave 20 subjects either 20 grams of creatinine or a placebo during a 5-day loading period, followed by a 6-week maintenance dose of 2 grams. During the loading period, subjects had increased muscle creatine and total creatine. Subjects were asked to perform cycling sprints after the loading period.
Those who received the creatine did not have any improved performance but maintained the increased lean body mass even during the maintenance period, which was not seen in the placebo group.
Another 2012 study found that creatine did improve endurance performance. Fifty-five subjects received either creatine alone, beta-alanine alone, a combination of beta-alanine with creatine, or a placebo for four weeks.
Those who received the creatine alone or combined with beta-alanine had a significant increase in energy and endurance performance. So, as you can see creatine is not just for bodybuilders trying to beef up.
How to Take Creatine Monohydrate
Creatine can either be “loaded” to quickly increase the creatine levels in the body with a 20 gram per day dose for the first week or so, followed by a 5 grams per day maintenance dose.
But, loading creatine may cause a 2-4 pound weight gain because creatine makes the muscles hold on to water. So, if you are trying to lean out for an upcoming event, it is probably best not to start taking creatine at that time.
Iron is needed to help carry oxygen to muscles to keep you moving through your run or swim. It is critical in the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, two important proteins in the blood and muscles.
Iron deficiency leads to fatigue and poor performance.
Endurance athletes, particularly female athletes, are at risk for iron deficiency anemia due to monthly blood losses and prolonged sweating. But, male athletes are at risk as well.
How to Take Iron
Iron supplements should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision and after a blood test to diagnose low iron levels.
Endurance athletes should always be checked to be sure their levels are not low. The RDA for men is 8 mg/day and 18 mg/day for women. Your doctor can recommend the ideal dosage and the type of supplement you need.
The best way to boost your iron is through food.
Heme iron, found in animal foods, is better absorbed when compared to non-heme iron in plant foods. Iron-rich foods should always be consumed with a food high in vitamin C, which increases absorption.
You should also avoid taking iron with high calcium foods, as they can reduce absorption.
Omega-3 fats have been extensively researched for their amazing health benefits and the ability to reduce inflammation. The three omega-3 fats, EPA, DHA, and ALA, have all been found to be highly anti-inflammatory. EPA and DHA are found primarily in fatty fish, like salmon. ALA is the plant-based omega-3 found in flax and walnuts.
How Omega-3 Helps Endurance
They are incredible for endurance athletes as well. They can lower inflammation caused by prolonged activity, speed up recovery, and also boost performance. A 2015 study of cyclists found that omega-3s were able to boost nitric oxide production improving overall athletic performance.
Subjects were given 1.3 grams of omega-3s twice a day for three weeks or a placebo. Those who received the omega-3 had higher nitric oxide levels, improved overall fitness levels, and enhanced performance.
How to Take Omega-3s
The active omega-3s are DHA and EPA. ALA must be activated into one of the other omegas and this process is very inefficient, so you want to look for a supplement that provides DHA and EPA.
There are several different options on the market and they vary based on what type of fish they are made from. It is best to look for a fish oil made from smaller fish, like sardines, as it has less chance of contamination from mercury or other heavy metals.
Krill oil is another option as it resists oxidation better than other fish oils.
If you are a vegan or a vegetarian, you can take algal oil, which is made from the algae the fish eat. The ideal dose is 3-6 grams per day of total omega 3. You want to look for a supplement that has a 2:1 ratio of EPA to DHA.
L-carnitine is a substance found in all species that help with energy metabolism. It can help improve athletic performance by boosting oxygen consumption and increasing power.
It has also been shown to reduce muscle injury after strenuous workouts, reduce cell damage, and neutralize free radicals.
How L-Carnitine Helps Endurance
It can also help prolong fatigue. A 2014 study evaluated the impact of L-carnitine on the endurance performance of football players. The 26 players were given either 3 or 4 grams of carnitine or a placebo before a running test.
Those who receive the most carnitine were able to increase their running speed while maintaining the same heart rate. This means they were able to exercise longer and harder, than those who did not receive the carnitine supplement.
How to Take L-Carnitine
L-carnitine comes in a few different forms. Athletes should choose L-carnitine L-tartrate for improved exercise performance, the ideal dose for that type is 1,000-4,000 mg per day. Propionyl-L-carnitine is best for improving blood flow and blood pressure, the ideal dose is 400-1000 mg per day.
BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids)
There are 20 different amino acids that make up the thousands of different proteins in the human body. Nine of the 20 are considered essential amino acids, meaning they cannot be made by your body and must be obtained through your diet.
Of the nine essential amino acids, three are the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): leucine, isoleucine and valine, which are found in protein-rich foods such as eggs, meat and dairy products. They are also a popular dietary supplement sold primarily in powder form.
There are five proven benefits of BCAAs:
1. Increase Muscle Growth
2. Decrease Muscle Soreness
3. Reduce Exercise Fatigue
4. Prevent Muscle Wasting
5. Benefit People With Liver Disease
How BCAA helps endurance?
• Why take this supplement: Helps maintain muscle mass
But is a BCAA supplement necessary?
When we run a lot we could end up in a calorie deficit. The leaner we become, the more muscle mass we lose always ending up with a calorie deficit. Even regular running training can make you end up in a calorie deficit. Branched amino acids help you to maintain as much muscle as possible while doing so.
Your body will be breaking down fat, some muscles – basically tissue – rather than making it (which is called anabolic state). You will end up losing muscles because your body is using the amino acids which have normally been utilized for protein synthesis to build more muscles as a source of energy.
If you want to keep your hard-gained muscles then BCAA’s are great. This has two great effects I could recognize within my training: the amino acids will provide you with extra energy to your muscle cells and help reduce fatigue.
So this is also a great supplement for runners’ endurance. Also, the amino acids will stimulate your muscle growth and your recovery after your run which is why BCAA’s are also one of the best post-workout supplements for runners.
How to take BCAA?
• BCAA supplement should be taken before or after your exercise.
Probiotics supplements and fermented foods are increasingly popular with endurance athletes looking to optimise their health and performance. Probiotics are the beneficial species of bacteria, which support human health in many ways.
Because of how everything in our bodies is interconnected, gut health can positively or negatively affect our immune system, nervous system, and hormones. Poor levels of gut flora (bacteria) can also increase inflammation in our bodies. Probiotic supplements improve gut health significantly.
How probiotics help endurance?
A few studies have reported that supplementation with multi-strain probiotics produced positive effects on performance, eg increasing VO2 max, aerobic power and time to exhaustion, but more have found no effect.
Any effect on performance is likely to be due to the impact of probiotics on various body systems, eg the immune system or the digestive tract, rather than directly as an ergogenic aid.
How to take probiotics?
• Start taking probiotics at least 14 days before a major training period or competition to allow yourself time to adapt and for the probiotics to colonise your gut. Be aware that you may experience side effects at first such as flatulence.
• Take probiotic supplements at the same time each day, eg with breakfast, to ensure consistent use.
• Test a probiotic supplement during the off season or in base training to see how you respond to it and whether you experience side effects that last more than a few days. Experiment with powders, liquids, tablets, or capsules to see which form you prefer.
Numerous studies have confirmed that an inadequate intake of calcium is a risk factor for stress fractures and bone loss. As an endurance athlete, your long term skeletal health is at risk and the stakes are high.
Some studies warn that people who exercise vigorously need to get proper amounts of calcium -- 1,000 to 1,600 mg a day -- to ensure that enough calcium is available for the bones to build density. During intense training, large amounts of calcium are lost through perspiration.
How calcium helps endurance?
Calcium is one of the most important supplements for athletes because it helps with muscle contractions and blood clotting. If you don't get enough calcium, your bones density can become damaged. Calcium consumption is a must for endurance athletes as they deal with stress fractures, knee issues and many more injuries.
How to take Calcium?
To maximize your absorption of calcium, take no more than 500 mg at a time. If you take a supplement that also contains vitamin D, it will help your body absorb calcium more efficiently.
Vitamin C And E
Vitamins C and E are great antioxidants that offer amazing support, especially for endurance athletes.
How vitamins C and E help endurance?
Vitamin C always gives a great immune system boost and helps to fight the oxidative damage that is caused by exercising and environmental toxins.
Vitamin E, on the other hand, supports your body to fight free radical damage caused by exercising for a long time and supports your heart and the general cardiovascular system.
How to take vitamins C and E?
Placebo-controlled research, some of it double-blind, has shown that taking 400 to 3,000 mg of vitamin C per day for several days before and after intense exercise may reduce pain and speed up muscle strength recovery.
Recent studies show that taking vitamin C pre- or post-workout can minimize the catabolic stress response and speed recovery. An uptake of 1000-3000mg (1-3g) of vitamin C in divided doses throughout the day, with 1000mg taken just before or just after your workout, is recommended..
A very important supplement for athletes is magnesium because it is one of the most important minerals in the diet and plays a huge role when it comes to endurance.
How magnesium helps endurance?
Magnesium assists with energy and muscle contraction, promotes strong bones and muscles and is a big supporter of cardiovascular health and nerve function.
It has important role in energy production and storage, normal muscle function, prevention of cramps and maintenance of blood glucose levels, it has been studied as an ergogenic aid for athletes.
How to take magnesium?
Research suggests that endurance athletes can safely consume 500 to 800 mg daily, and there is debate as to whether this amount should be higher still.
Recent research indicates that vitamin D is of particular importance for athletes. Studies show that vitamin D helps protect against injuries and illness, promotes optimal physical performance, and supports bone health.
Studies suggest that it may even raise testosterone levels and decrease inflammation. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
How vitamin D3 helps endurance?
Vitamin D3 has been shown to increase force and power output of skeletal muscle tissue, perhaps through the sensitization of calcium binding sites. There is further evidence that vitamin D3 might potentially increase both size and number of some muscle fibers.
After an 8-week long intervention of either receiving 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or a placebo, the vitamin D3 group had a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels and a significant improvement in both their 10-m sprint times and vertical jump when compared to the placebo group.
Animal studies have shown that supraphysiological dosages of vitamin D3 have potential ergogenic effects on the human metabolic system and lead to multiple physiological enhancements. These dosages could increase aerobic capacity, muscle growth, force and power production, decrease recovery time from exercise and improve bone density. Vitamin K works synergistically with vitamin D to regulate bone resorption, activation and distribution. Vitamin D3 toxicity might occur only in the absence of sufficient vitamin K stores.
How to take vitamin D3?
Due to the many benefits of vitamin D, many athletic research studies on the optimal level of this vitamin for athletes have been carried out. These studies indicate that 4,000 IU to 5,000 IU is the optimal daily dose for athletes. In conjunction with a mixture of 50-1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 seems to be a safe dose that has the potential to aid athletic performance.
Endurance athletes spend hours and hours a week doing the same continuous activity, which can put a major strain on the body. This means you must pay close attention that you are supporting your body with overall good nutrition.
The first step is to make sure you are getting adequate calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates to support so much exercise. Supplements can help support better performance and speed up recovery.
Dialing in your nutrition, supplementing it as reasonably necessary, and training may help make sure you make it to the finish line on time.